English - Reading
"To build safe, independent lives for autistic young people through support, understanding and enablement".
For pupils to have functional reading skills to:
- Understand printed communication in its varied forms to enhance knowledge and understanding of the world around them
- Read to access the curriculum successfully and achieve within it
- To read printed communications through a range of mediums
- To have reading skills to access knowledge throughout life
A range of strategies and techniques are used at Springfields building on the strengths of our learners with autism and their individual learning styles.
Choosing a text - Our Reading Schemes and Special Interest Library
Our readers have access to a wide range of texts linked to a colour banded progression. Additionally, to encourage reading for pleasure pupil's can access our 'Special Interest Library' where the text categories to choose from are decided by pupil voice.
Reading scheme texts pupils read are closely linked to their phonics knowledge - the coloured banding of a pupils reading book directly relates to their Phonics Phase. We provide a range of schemes linked to a colour banded progression to encourage our more reluctant readers to find 'the right text/scheme' for their needs and to provide all children with a breadth of texts to explore.
Our coloured banded library includes texts published by:
- Rising Stars Reading Planet
- Rapid Readers
- Oxford Reading Tree
- Jolly Phonics
Pupils' reading skills are regularly assessed for fluency and comprehension skills using the PM Benchmark Assessment. A coloured banding is allocated based on the assessment outcome. Pupils are given personalised reading targets in line with their coloured band that they work towards during individual and guided reading sessions.
Pupils' wider reading skills are targeted and assessed during guided reading sessions and reading across the curriculum. Progress is recorded three times a year in line with our 'pupil progress and assessment cycle'.
For pupils accessing the 'Autism and Cognition and Learning' pathway and 'Specific Needs' pathways the reading assessment platform is B-Squared. For pupils accessing the 'Autism and Environment' pathway reading in relation to English is assessed using the 'Rising Stars Progression Framework'.
Reading at Home
We are aware that linked to a diagnosis of autism the 'fixed mindset' of some of our pupils view 'school work' as being 'for school only'. In this situation we are happy to discuss home reading options on a personalised level with families to establish an individualised approach. We do encourage reading at home for pleasure and offer a range of ways for pupils to enjoy reading at home such as:
- taking home a reading book from our coloured scheme
- taking home a book from our pupil voice driven 'special interest' library
- access to online 'Rapid Reader' texts
- access to the 'Nessy Reading and Spelling' program (online)
- regular creative reading challenges via Class Dojo
The Reading Journey:
Early Reading Skills:
A child’s reading journey in Key Stage 1 begins with the development of the understanding that print (in all its forms) has permanence and meaning.
This is encouraged through the exploration of pictures, symbols, signs, letters and words throughout the environment and through discrete teaching. Readers are actively encouraged to communicate about what they can read in the world around them and discuss their interpretation of its meaning.
Readers are encouraged to join in with songs and rhymes to develop language and communication skills, this is further developed in daily story times and opportunities for individualised reading exploration including sequencing activities, role play and reading with others.
We recognise that many of our learners present with Executive Dysfunction and therefore employ a range of autism enablement strategies to support our readers to organise their thoughts (e.g. scaffolding a sequence of events), plan their responses (e.g. accessing prior knowledge and making connections) and monitor their understanding (e.g. creating mental images, engaging in discussions and summarising)
All children have the opportunity to learn to read through a synthetic phonics approach.
The detailed and cumulative structure of this approach to learning to read builds on some of the strengths our learners with autism have who see the detail within the ‘whole’. We have adapted the DFE ‘Letters and Sounds’ progression document and teach phonics through various multi-sensory formats providing our learners with a range of experiences to develop their phonetic awareness. We use a range of resources such as ‘Jolly Phonics’ to inform our teaching and plan frequent opportunities for ‘over learning’ concepts so that our learners experience them in a range of contexts to help scaffold the generalisation and transference of skills which some of our learners find more difficult in line with their diagnosis of autism.
Action words/Whole word approach:
Some of our learners with more specific and complex learning profiles are more suited to learning to read using a ‘whole word’ approach (particularly where blending phonics has not been successful for example where a child has barriers to learning linked to weak central coherence and therefore is unable to bring details together to a central concept).
Whole words are taught through a variety of multi-sensory mediums combining a visual prompt, an action and where required an association (building on the concept of Grandin (1995) ‘Thinking in Pictures). Readers are encouraged the use this approach in a variety of contexts to support the generalisation of the skill.
Reading for meaning – teaching comprehension skills:
Comprehension of what a reader has read can be a difficult skill for our learners with autism to develop, especially for readers who are still developing ‘Theory of Mind’ and find it difficult to understand others’ point of view or perspective.
Some readers may present with elements of ‘Hyperlexia’ which is characterised by an intense fascination with letters or numbers and an advanced ability to decode/read words however comprehension of what has been read is significantly more difficult.
To enable our readers to comprehend what they have read we use the following strategies personalised to a reader’s level of comprehension:
- Allow the reader to access and build background knowledge
- Present the reader with visual support in relation to the text
- Pre-teach key vocabulary
- Create mental images
- Picture walk through the text
- In Year 9 and above texts will often be sequenced thematically or by genre, allowing learners to draw on their prior learning
- Make connections
- Make a visual representation of the story e.g. graphical organiser
- Reciprocal questioning
- Modelling how to generate and answer questions – presented visually
- Summarise understanding
- Story Recall Teaching students to create causal connections and causal chains – presented visually
- Use the 5Ws to summarise: who, what, where, when, why
Reading from Key Stage 1 to end of Key Stage 4 accreditation:
Reading skills are developed using a cumulative structure, bespoke to a learning pathway to accreditation as documented in the Reading Key Performance Indicators document.
Specific intervention is planned on an individual basis where there are barriers to learning.
At Key Stage 4 all pupils will be able to decode texts independently, at a level appropriate to their accreditation pathway.
- Feedback on reading learning tasks within the lesson (reference cohort/pathway guidelines in autism handbook)
- Teacher assessment against reading Key Performance Indicators that are cohort/pathway specific. Reading assessment is regularly moderated to ensure accuracy.
- Progress towards end of year reading targets is evaluated through the pupil assessment and progress cycle (reference flow chart)
- The reading curriculum is evaluated through the termly curriculum review which is informed by:
- Progress Frameworks - autism, knowledge and skills bespoke to cohort pathway.
- Progress towards EHCP outcomes
- Accreditation achieved
- Pupil progress and attainment cycle
- Pupil voice
- Staff curriculum evaluation
- Parent voice
Impact of the Reading Curriculum:
All Springfields pupils will leave the academy with functional reading skills to lead a safe independent life. This will be evident in all pupils achieving as a minimum the Entry Level 1 qualification in English; many will achieve higher level qualifications such as further Entry Levels, Functional Skills Qualifications and some may achieve GCSE English.